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[分享][讨论]心理分析简史及人的存在的有关理论(翻译征求意见版)

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发表于 2005-12-12 16:33 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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本帖最后由 作者 于 2006-1-9 9:37:50 编辑

以下是一个朋友让我帮忙翻译的一篇文章,我翻译了一下,但有好多地方不太懂,不知如何翻译,请高手帮我校对一下(特别是文中蓝色部分),谢谢。

原文出处:http://www.mythosandlogos.com/psychandbe.html

A BRIEF HISTORY OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THOUGHT -- AND RELATED THEORIES OF HUMAN EXISTENCE

byBrent Dean Robbins

The following is a long, yet still very brief, history of psychoanalytic thought, including the following topics:

FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE TRADITION

I have been quite pleased lately to find that contemporary images of psychoanalysis have begun to shift once again. For many years, psychoanalysts have been the target of contempt by the media. I think, for example, of Harold's therapist in Harold and Maude, or, more recently, the aloof psychoanalyst in There's Something About Mary. More recently, films such as Good Will Hunting and Analyze This have portrayed psychotherapy as a powerful vehicle for radical psychological transformation and healing. Negative portrayals of psychoanalysts in the media typically provide the image of the cliched classical psychoanalyst -- aloof, cold, and distant, silently stroking his beard, emitting a "hmmm..." every now and again, while the client or analysand whines endlessly while lying upon a couch. Ironically, as Freud had intended it to be, the psychoanalyst has become the image on which to project our feelings about authority figures, only now on a cultural level. People often do not realize, however, that psychoanalysis, since Freud, is in the service of liberating us from the chains of our past authority figures rather than creating new "shoulds" with which we must feel obligated. The new media images of psychoanalysts, however, portray the psychotherapist as a healer in this more originary sense of the word. I also find it interesting that the new images of psychotherapy are no longer of the classical Freudian patient lying upon the couch, but rather portrays client and therapist as face-to-face. I feel -- and I will surely ruffle some feathers with this opinion -- that this face-to-face orientation is indebted to the humanistic orientation of psychotherapy, once the "third force" counter-movement against psychoanalysis and behaviorism, though now its influences have very much become integrated into contemporary psychoanalytic thought.

I think many people have a very difficult time understanding psychoanalytic theory because it is a way of thinking which is radically different than our everyday way of talking about ourselves. If you ask people if they believe in the existence of 'the unconscious,' they will likely say, "Yes, indeed! Of course there is an unconscious!" But it is very rare, I think, to find a person who actually lives as if they are radically unknown to themselves. As we tarry about our everyday lives, there is good reason to fall into the belief that we are transparent to ourselves. The theoretical construct of 'the unconscious' is problematic theoretically, no doubt, but I think that those who do not take it seriously are simply very well-adept at duping themselves. It is safe to say that, today, there is no doubt that something like an unconscious exists, though we don't quite know just yet how to go about talking about it. Personally, I feel that existential-phenomenological philosophy offers a way to talk about what has been called 'the unconscious' without falling into the epistemological difficulties of such a concept. For more on existential-phenomenology, you can visit my existential-phenomenology page. This will surprise many who feel that this tradition -- Husserl's phenomenology and Sartre's existential-phenomenology -- denies the existence of the unconscious, or at least has developed a method by which the unconscious is inaccessible. Let me just leave off this topic by saying that psychoanalytic theory, Freud being the pioneer, has given us a great gift by delivering to us a kind of language with which to talk about the depths of the soul.


心理分析思想简史及人的存在的有关理论

作者:Brent Dean Robbins

这篇文章虽长,却仍是心理分析思想的一个简史,涉及的主题有:弗洛伊德、自我心理学、人际关系心理分析、客体关系理论、人本心理学、存在主义-现象心理学、荣格的分析心理学、原型心理学、超个人心理学、佛教心理学及其它东方势力、自体心理学、法兰克福学派

弗洛伊德与精神分析理论:对这一传统的介绍

最近我很高兴地发现,当代对精神分析的形象又一次开始转变。许多年来,精神分析师一直都是媒体轻视的对象。比如我想到的,比如我想到的,《Harold and Maude》中 Harold 的 治疗师;或者,更近些,《There's Something About Mary》里的那个孤傲的精神分析师。近来,例如《Good Will Hunting》和《Analyze This》这样的电影已经把“心理疗法”描绘成了一个用于“根本性的心理改观和治愈”的强大工具。媒体对精神分析师的消极描述为人们提供的是一种迂腐的经典精神分析师的形象——冷漠、冷静、远距离、默默地捋着胡须;当顾客(或接受分析的人)躺在沙发上不断抱怨时,分析师就不时地发出“恩,恩……”的声音。具有讽刺意味的是,由于过去弗洛伊德一直有意让顾客把对权威人物的情感投射到他身上,因此现在精神分析师已经成为这样一种形象,只不过到目前为止仅仅停留于文化水平上。然而,人们通常不能认识到:自弗洛伊德以来,精神分析就是为了把我们从过去崇拜权威人物的枷锁中解放出来的,而不是创造一些我们必须承担的新的“应该”。然而,新媒体对精神分析师的形象是把精神分析师描绘成用对世界更原始的感觉对病人进行医治的精神治疗医师。我还发现,有趣的是,对心理治疗形成的新形象不再是传统的弗洛伊德式的病人躺在沙发上了,而是顾客与治疗师面对面。我感觉,而且我肯定惹毛了持这一观点的人——即我认为这种面对面的定位应该感谢心理治疗中人本主义心理学——曾经是介于精神分析与行为主义之间的“第三势力”——方向的定位,尽管现如今人本主义的影响相当多地与当代精神分析思想进行整合。

我想,许多人在理解精神分析理论时,都会有一段难以理解的时期,因为它是一种与我们日常谈论自己的方式完全不同的思考方式。如果你问人们,他们是否相信“潜意识”的存在,他们也许会说,“是的,我相信!当然存在潜意识!”但我想,几乎不能找到一个好像对自己一无所知的大活人。在我们每天的生活中,我们就会找到好的借口,使我们相信我们对自己很了解。‘潜意识’的理论模型在理论上是有问题的,但我想,毋庸质疑的是,不是真正这样认为的人只不过是一些非常擅于欺骗自己的人。可以说,毫无疑问,像潜意识这样的事物如今一定存在,只是我们到目前为止还不完全知道如何开始谈论它。就我个人来说,我认为,存在主义-现象哲学为我们提供了一个谈论‘潜意识’的方式,而不会陷入这一概念的认识论的困难中去。想要了解更多的存在主义-现象学,请访问我的存在主义-现象学网页。这会让许多人感到惊讶,他们会感觉,这种传统——胡塞尔的现象学与萨特的存在主义-现象学——否认潜意识的存在,或者至少是发展了一种方法,这种方法证明潜意识是无法接近的。我只能说以弗洛伊德为先驱的精神分析理论给了我们一个非常好的礼物,即给了我们一种谈论心灵最深处的语言,就让我以此来结束这个主题吧。

Generally, there are two extreme views of psychoanalytic theory which are equally misleading. In the first place, there exists a view, largely perpetuated by introduction to psychology courses in universities, that psychoanalysis is mostly the project of one man, Sigmund Freud. The fact is, however, that Freud, though the pioneer of psychoanalysis, is far from being the sole contributor to psychoanalytic theory and practice today. In fact, many of Freud's original tenets have been challenged by contemporary psychoanalytic theorists, including: the argument that instinctual drives are the primary motivation for human beings; the rigid focus on the Oedipus complex as the central conflict of the psyche; the emphasis on analytic neutrality; the belief that the therapist must frustrate the wishes of the client; therapy as a regression to infantile neurosis, to name a few. And, as I eluded to above, the new psychotherapy does not fit the old image of the endlessly free associating analysand, lying on a couch while surrendering to the authority of the analyst. (The exception to this rule is Lacanian psychoanalytic analysis, which in many ways is a return to Freud from a post-structuralist position). Rather, psychotherapy as it is practiced today, while there are exceptions to the rule, is viewed more as a collaborative process between therapist and client. Further, many therapists today do not claim to be the "objective" authority on truth for the client, but rather today's therapist is deeply aware that no therapist can be "value free," nor is this necessarily a good thing since it implies the therapist is detached and aloof rather than fully engaged in an empathic, therapeutic relationship with the client. If one is to provide an accurate account of psychoanalytic theory, one must take account of all the developments which follow from Freud, including the work of theorist-practitioners such as Harry Stack Sullivan, Carl Jung, Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein, Margaret Mahler, Jacques Lacan, and Heinz Kohut, among many others.

The second, related misconception, I feel, is the exact opposite of the above misconception. Personally, I am somewhat sick and tired of those who take pleasure in bashing Freud. I in no way intend to mean here that we should not continue to be constructively critical of Freud's theory, but I feel that too often mainstream psychology as a whole has tended to humor Freudian theory while failing miserably to give it the serious attention it deserves. Most of the people I hear criticizing Freud, if probed further, will be discovered to have never read a lick of Freud, their opinions gathered instead by close-minded, dumbed-down secondary resources. For chrissake, if you are going to criticize Freud, at least read him! If you read Freud himself, you do not simply find the Freud you heard about in your introductory psychology texts. Instead, you discover a brilliant rhetor who managed to take great pains, although often failing (like the rest of us), to treat his patients with the dignity they are due, while, at the same time, persuasively legitimizing his theory amongst his neurology-trained colleagues with his meta-psychology. Freud's theory is amazingly complex and, throughout his life, continually evolved. It is unfair to say that Freud always held rigidly to his theory since he did continually develop his theoretical model. On the other hand, I will concede that Freud could often be a tyrant who could not tolerate the differences of opinion offered by his close contemporaries, particularly Jung, Adler, and Rank, all of whom hit up against Freud's hard-headed adherence to his own theoretic perspective. For the record, however, I think it is only fair to say that Freud would have never discovered what he discovered if he had not listened to his patients rather than his own presumptions. In short, I have a deep respect for Freud, though I am far from a 'Freudian,' since I have many theoretical differences with Freudian meta-psychology. But I also realize that had Freud not embarked upon his pioneering work, there would be no place from which to make such distinctions.


通常,存在两种误导的精神分析理论的极端观点。首先,有一种观点主要存在于大学心理学入门课程中,这里的精神分析主要是西格蒙·弗洛伊德的观点。而事实上,弗洛伊德尽管是精神分析的先驱,但到目前为止远非唯一一个对精神分析理论与实践做出贡献的人。实际上,弗洛伊德精神分析的许多初始原则已经受到当代精神分析理论家的挑战,这些原则包括:本能驱力是人类的基本动机的观点;严格聚焦于俄狄浦斯情结上,并把它作为心理的主要冲突;强调分析中立;相信治疗师必须阻止顾客的意愿;退行到婴儿神经症进行治疗,这里只是一些例子。而正如前面我所理解的那样,新的精神疗法不再符合其旧的形象:躺在沙发上,屈从于分析者的权威,进行无休无止的自由联想(有一例外就是拉康精神分析的分析,它的很多方面是从后结构主义者的立场上回到弗洛伊德原则上的)。更确切地说,尽管今天精神疗法仍然在应用,但有很多都不再遵循这一规则,而更多地被认为是治疗师与病人之间的协作过程。此外,现今的许多治疗师不会宣称对顾客的真相保持“客观”权威,而是深深地意识到没有一个治疗师能够做到“纯客观”,这也未必不是一件好事,因为做到“纯客观”就意味着治疗师是被分离、被孤立出来的,而不是完全投入到与咨客的共情、治疗关系中。如果有人想要对精神分析理论进行详细说明,那他必须考虑从弗洛伊德以来精神分析所有的发展,包括理论家-从业者的成果,如哈利·斯塔克·沙利文、荣格、艾里克森、梅兰妮·克莱茵、玛格丽·玛勒、雅克·拉康及海因兹·科胡特等(theorist-practitioners such as Harry Stack Sullivan, Carl Jung, Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein, Margaret Mahler, Jacques Lacan, and Heinz Kohut)。

其次,我认为,有关的误解就是与上面的误解完全相反的误解。就我个人来说,我有些厌烦那些以严厉抨击弗洛伊德为乐的人。这里,我决不是故意说,我们不该持续建设性地批评弗洛伊德的理论。而是我认为,作为整体的主流心理学倾向于迎合弗洛伊德的理论,却不能给予它应得的严肃关注,这是很可悲的,而这种事情又非常常见。多数我所听到的批评弗洛伊德的人,如果对他们进行深入调查,就会发现他们从未读过弗洛伊德的书。相反,他们的观点来自于保守、理解力较弱的读者重写的二手材料。天啊,如果你准备批评弗洛伊德,至少应该先阅读他的作品吧!如果你阅读了弗洛伊德的原著,那你就不会只是发现在介绍性心理学文章中所听说的东西。相反,你会发现他是一个聪明的演说家,设法取走巨大的痛苦,尽管他常常不能(就像我们一样)使顾客拥有应得的尊严。而同时,令人信服的是,弗洛伊德使其元心理学理论得到了他的接受过神经学培训的同事的承认。弗洛伊德的理论极其复杂,而且弗洛伊德一生都在不断发展它。说弗洛伊德总是严格坚持他的理论是不公平的,因为他的确持续在发展他的理论模式。另一方面,我得承认,弗洛伊德常常是一个暴君,他不能容忍来自亲密的同时代心理学家的不同意见,特别是荣格、阿德勒与兰克,他们三个都要求反对弗洛伊德固执地拥护自己的理论观点。然而,对这一记录,我认为弗洛伊德如果不听病人说的,而只是听从自己的假设,那么他就再也不会发现所发现的东西了,这样说是相当公平的。简言之,我深深地敬重弗洛伊德,尽管我远非一个“相信弗洛伊德学说的人”,因为我与弗洛伊德的元心理学理论有许多理论分岐。但我也认识到,如果没有弗洛伊德从事开拓性的工作,那么就没有机会产生如今的这些不同了。

发表于 2005-12-13 13:57 | 显示全部楼层

支持姐姐!

 楼主| 发表于 2006-1-3 10:44 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 作者 于 2006-1-6 11:55:31 编辑


As a final introductory note, it is somewhat ironic that Freud's greatest impact today can be felt in the humanities rather than the natural sciences. Philosophers and literary critics, in particular, have discovered the value of Freud's work in that Freud's discoveries concretely and persuasively demonstrate that the human being is radically de-centered. Lacan, in particular, has been instrumental in demonstrating the vital connection between the unconscious and language -- a move which situates psychoanalysis within the tradition of the science of linguistics as opposed to the natural sciences.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY

FREUD AND CLASSICAL PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY

Psychoanalysis was given birth by Sigmund Freud at the turn of the century. Freud conceptualized the mind, metaphorically, as an ancient, buried ruin which had to been unearthed much like an archeologist would unearth the treasures of an ancient civilization. Freud's influence can be traced from his hard-core natural science background as a student of neurology, as well as his rarely acknowledged debt to Franz Brentano (also a teacher of Edmund Husserl), who taught Freud to understand that consciousness is always intentional. This tension between a more phenomenological approach to understanding the mind and Freud's inclination toward natural scientific explanation is a tension which exists in all of his work and writings, as well as throughout all of psychoanalytic theory following Freud. In fact, this tension between understanding and explanation can be said to be a tension which exists, whether acknowledged or not, in all of the human sciences (see, for example, Dilthey).

Freud's version of psychoanalysis had its predecessor in the work with hysterics conducted by neurologists Jean-Martin Charcot and Hippolyte Bernheim, who, using hypnosis, discovered that the origins of hysteria were mental rather than overtly physiological. Freud's colleague, Josef Breuer, first began using his modified technique of hypnosis to treat the famous hysteric patient with the alias 'Anna O,' who we now know to be Bertha Pappenheim. This technique involved placing the patient in a hypnotic trance and removing the symptoms through the use of posthypnotic suggestion. Freud, a poor hypnotist, became especially adept at listening to these patients, and, along with Breuer, discovered that the origins of the hysteria appeared to involve emotionally charged events in the patients' past. When the patient, through talking, followed associations in her memory, she was able to recover the forgotten event, which led to the cure. Freud eventually gave up the process of using hypnotism for the use of a technique he came to call "free association," in which the patient was encouraged to put aside all inhibitions and follow her associations, which would eventually, even without hypnosis, lead to the recovery of unconscious memory.

From the period of 1895 to roughly 1905, Freud's innovations led to the development of his theory, all of which were developed from his clinical work with patients. Initially theoretical formulations led to the topographic model of the psyche, which Freud categorized into three different subsections: the unconscious, preconscious, and conscious. Further, Freud became more and more sophisticated in his technique of psychoanalysis, and he became particularly adept at using his patients's subjective impressions of him to help the patient to discover the origins of the unconscious memory (or memories) which led to the symptoms from which she suffered. It followed that Freud developed a theory that patients resisted remembering the trauma, and this 'resistance' was evident in disruptions of the free association process. Such disruptions constituted what Freud called 'defenses,' and, most notably, the defenses involved what Freud called 'transference,' the transference of conflictual thoughts and feelings to the analyst. Freud also came to acknowledge that unconscious events are traceable in other phenomena, as well, including dreams, slips of the tongue, and in jokes.


正如最后的介绍性注释所写的那样,如今在人文科学中,自然科学中,可以感受到弗洛伊德最伟大的影响,这多少有点讽刺意味。尤其是,哲学家与文学批评家已经发现了弗洛伊德成果的价值,在这些成果中,弗洛伊德的发现具体又令人信服地证明,人类根本上是去中心化的。特别是,拉康(Lacan)一直帮助证明潜意识与语言之间所必须的连接——一种运动,这种运动使精神分析位于语言科学的传统中,而不是与之相反的自然科学中。

精神分析理论简史

弗洛伊德与经典精神分析理论

精神分析是由西格蒙·弗洛伊德(Sigmund Freud)在19世纪末与20世纪初创造的。弗洛伊德把人的心理比喻为古老的、被掩埋的废墟,这个废墟必须被挖掘出来,就像考古学家挖掘远古文明的珍宝一样。弗洛伊德除了受到布伦塔诺(也是胡塞尔的老师)无可怀疑的巨大影响以外,还可以追塑到神经学的学生这一坚实的自然科学背景。是布伦塔诺,他教会了弗洛伊德理解了意识,——它总是有目的的。这种更多地用现象学方法理解心理与弗洛伊德的倾向于用自然科学方法解释心理之间存在的压力在他所有成果及作品中都存在,同时也在弗洛伊德后的所有精神分析理论中都存在。事实上,不管人们是否承认,这种在理解与解释之间存在的压力可以说在所有人文科学中(如,见狄尔泰)都存在。

弗洛伊德的精神分析描述,其前身是神经科医生沙可(Jean-Martin Charcot)与希伯莱特·伯恩海母(Hippolyte Bernheim)实施的对癔症的治疗。他们两个利用催眠,发现癔症的起源是心理原因,而不是表面的生理原因。弗洛伊德的同事布洛依尔(Josef Breuer)最先开始利用经过改进的催眠术为一位化名为‘安娜·O’的癔症病人进行治疗,我们现在知道这个安娜原名是帕莎·帕潘海姆(Bertha Pappenheim)。这种技术包括:通过催眠使病人处于一种恍惚状态,然后对病人进行催眠暗示,以消除症状。弗洛伊德由于不擅长催眠,就特别擅于倾听病人诉说。他与布洛依尔一起,发现癔症的起源好像与病人过去遭遇的情感事件有密切关联。通过谈论,病人随着记忆进行联想,就能想起以前忘记了的事情,然后就治愈了。弗洛伊德最终放弃了使用催眠的过程,转而使用一种他称为“自由联想”的技术。利用自由联想,弗洛伊德鼓励病人撇开所有的禁固,而跟随自己的联想(甚至最后也没有达到催眠状态),逐渐重获潜意识记忆。

大约从1985年到1905年间,弗洛伊德的创新使他发展了他的理论,所有这些理论都是从他的临床工作中发展出来的。最初,一些理论公式导向心灵的心理图式。在这种心理图式中,弗洛伊德将心灵分为三个不同的部分:潜意识、前意识与意识。此外,弗洛伊德对他的精神分析技术越来越精通,而且他特别擅于利用病人对他形成的主观印象,帮助病人发现导致她所遭受的症状的潜意识记忆(或记忆)的起源。接着,弗洛伊德发展了一套理论,认为病人阻止回忆起创伤,而这种“阻抗”显然中断了自由联想过程。这些中断就是弗洛伊德所说的“防御”。而最特别的是,这些防御包含了弗洛伊德所说的“移情”,它是由病人对分析师产生的冲突的想法与感受所引起的。弗洛伊德也逐渐承认,潜意识事件也可以在其它现象中找到其起源,如梦、说漏嘴的话语和玩笑。

From his work with patients, Freud was eventually led to develop a more and more sophisticated theory of the human psyche which became increasingly understood according to a developmental model. Freud, by observing his patients, found that many of the memories uncovered by his patients were sexual in nature and reverted back to early childhood memories. From these observations, Freud developed his controversial theory of childhood sexuality. Freud eventually justified these observations with a generalized theory of an instinctual drive, which became the foundation for his theory. At first, Freud felt that such instincts were largely sexual in nature. Later, he conceded that instincts also involved aggressive drives, as well as sexual drives. In any case, Freud's development model, a theory of 'psychosexual development,' traced the development of childhood seuxality through various stages, organized according to 'erogenous zones,' bodily zones which are highly sexually charged at certain stages in development: in particular, the mouth, anus, and genitals.

Freud imagined the instincts as consisting of a form of energy he called 'libido.' The very young infant, Freud felt, was entirely governed by the libido, and this embedded, embodied existence was called 'primary process thinking,' the bedrock of all experience. This 'primary process thinking' largely consists of phantasy, omnipotent thinking, and exists outside of linear time -- in short, it demands immediate gratification. As the child develops through the various psychosexual stages -- oral, anal, and phallic -- the child's libido is increasingly 'repressed' by parental figures who train the child to delay gratification and to channel the libido in ways that are socially appropriate. This pure libidinal drive Freud called the 'id.' Disruptions at any of the stages of psychosexual development, Freud observed, appeared to result in what he called 'fixation' -- an excessive preoccupation with that particular erogenous zone characterized either by over-indulgence or under-indulgence. With the formation of the unconscious, what is leftover in the conscious of the person is called 'secondary process thinking' by Freud.

Central to Freud's theory is the "Oedipal complex." Freud discovered that, with many of his patients, conflicts arose during the phallic stage, which occurred between the ages of three and five. With the onset of the phallic stage, Freud argued, the child's genitals become libidinally charged, and this leads to a desire for the parent of the opposite sex and a feeling of competitiveness with the parent of the same sex. The particular organization of these conflicts depends on how the child has negotiated the earlier psychosexual stages. Freud felt that the Oedipus complex is ultimately resolved, at least for males, by "castration anxiety." The young boy fears that his desire for the mother will result in the loss of his penis, which leads him, instead, to identify with the father. From this resolution of the conflict, the child develops an "ideal" self based on the internalization of parental values. This "ego ideal" results in the development of the "super-ego," which constitutes the often unrealistic ideals toward which the child will strive and which inevitably conflict with the libidinal drives of the 'id.' The partly conscious, partly unconscious self, known as the 'ego,' bears the responsibility for negotiating between these two extremes. Thus, the "ego" is governed by the "reality principle," which must use various defenses to negotiate between the unrealistic motives of the "superego" ("ego ideal") and the "id," governed by the "pleasure principle." This structure of the psyche is the way Freud made sense of the emergence of the unconscious, which results in the repression of libidinal drives, as well as memories, thoughts, and feelings which arouse anxiety. Ultimately, for Freud, the human being is in perpetual conflict with itself, torn between one's animal nature and the ideals of one's culture internalized with the values of one's parents.


在治疗病人的过程中,弗洛伊德最终发展了一套越来越复杂的人类心理理论,并且人们渐渐地把这一理论看作一种心理发展的模型。通过对病人的观察,弗洛伊德发现,病人暴露出来的许多记忆实际上都是与性有关的,而且可以追塑到早期孩童时期的记忆中。通过这些观察,弗洛伊德发展出了引起争议的儿童时期的性理论。他最终用普遍的本能驱力理论证明这些观察是合理的,而本能驱力理论也成为他的理论的基础。首先,弗洛伊德认为,这些本能实际上大部分是与性有关的。后来,他承认,本能除了包括性驱力以外,还包括一些攻击驱力。无论如何,弗洛伊德的发展模式——‘性心理发展’理论——通过几个阶段描述了儿童性的发展,这几个阶段是根据发展过程中的特定阶段高度性敏感的‘性感区’、‘身体区’建立的:特别是口、肛门和生殖器这三个部位。

弗洛伊德设想本能是由一种他称为‘力比多’的能量形态构成的。他认为,幼小的婴儿完全由力比多所控制,而这种深入内心的、具体化的存在被称为‘初级过程思维’,是所有体验的基础。这种‘初级过程思维’主要由幻想、万能思想构成,而且不受时间限制——简言之,就是它需要立即获得满足。随着儿童的发展,越过各个性心理阶段——口唇期、肛门期、生殖器期,儿童的力比多逐渐被父亲(或母亲)式的人物‘压抑’了,他们训练儿童延迟满足,并且训练他们以合乎社会的方式释放力比多。弗洛伊德把这种纯粹的性驱力称为‘本我’。据弗洛伊德观察,中断任何一个性心理发展阶段好像都会导致他所说的‘固着’现象——过多地专注于特定的性感区,它以过于放纵或抑制放纵为特征。随着潜意识的形成,留在意识中的东西被弗洛伊德称为‘二级过程思维’。

弗洛伊德理论的中心是“俄狄浦斯情结”。他发现,在他的许多病人中,冲突都是产生于生殖器阶段(三到五岁之间)。弗洛伊德提出,随着生殖器阶段的到来,儿童的生殖器变得充满性欲,而这会引起儿童想要与异性父母在一起的渴望,同时产生与同性父母竞争的复杂情感。这些冲突的特定组织状态取决于儿童是如何完成早期的性心理阶段的。弗洛伊德认为,俄狄浦斯情结最终是通过“阉割焦虑”解决的(至少对男人来说是这样)。年幼的男孩害怕他想要与母亲在一起的渴望会导致失去阴茎,因而,相反地,他就会认同他的父亲。随着这一冲突的解决,孩子就会在内化了父亲(母亲)价值观的基础上形成“理想”自我。这种“理想自我”就会导致“超我”的发展。超我会制定出许多不切实际的理想,孩子会为这样的理想努力奋斗,而必然会与‘本我’的性驱力发生冲突。有部分是意识,有部分是潜意识,而众所周知的‘自我’就担当起了在这两者之间进行谈判的角色。因而,‘自我’是受“现实法则”所支配的,它必须利用各种防御在“超我” (“理想自我”)的非现实动机与“本我”(由“快乐原则”支配)之间进行谈判。通过这个结构,弗洛伊德赋予了潜意识以意义,潜意识会压抑性驱力,同时也会压抑引起焦虑的记忆、思想与情感。在弗洛伊德看来,根本上,人类会永远处于与自己的冲突中,并在人的动物本性与内化了父母价值观的文化理想之间遭受折磨。

 楼主| 发表于 2006-1-3 10:44 | 显示全部楼层

(It should be noted that this very brief review of Freud's thought and work is overly-simplistic and, compared with the actual development of his thought, not adequate for a thorough understanding of Freud's theory. But it is a good start for the neophyte. I simply warn the reader that one must not stop here before making judgements. For further exploration, see the Freud page. I also recommend my paper on one of Freud's famous case studies of the 'psychotic' Dr. Schreber, within which I more fully articulate Freud's method of doing therapy).

As mentioned previously, Freud was very protective of his theory, and he entered into conflicts with various colleagues who offered alternative theoretical perspectives, including Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Otto Rank, and Sandor Ferenczi. All of these brilliant thinkers anticipated what would become central themes in contemporary psychoanalytic thought, even in Freud's later thought, although their contributions to these discoveries are often overlooked. Further, as mentioned above, Freud's psychoanalytic theory is only the beginning. Even those faithful to Freud would significantly expand upon and, ultimately, transform Freud's origin insights into the nature of psychological life.


(应该提到的是,这篇关于弗洛伊德思想及成果的评论过于简单了,与他的思想的实际发展相比,这篇评论不足以完全理解他的理论,但对初学者来说是一个好的开始。我只是要提醒读者不要在这里就开始做出判断。为了进行更深入的探索,可以看弗洛伊德的网页。我也推荐大家阅读我写的一篇关于施力伯博士‘精神病’的著名个案研究的论文,在这篇论文里我更全面地详细介绍了弗洛伊德做治疗的方法)。

正如前面提到的那样,弗洛伊德非常保护他的理论,因此与各种提出各种理论观点的同事发生冲突,这些同事包括阿德勒、荣格、奥托·兰克与桑多儿·费伦齐。甚至在弗洛伊德后期思想时,所有这些聪明的思想家都预期弗洛伊德的思想会成为同时期精神分析思想的中心主题,尽管他们对这些发现的贡献通常被忽略。更进一步说,正如上面提到的那样,弗洛伊德的精神分析理论仅仅是开端。甚至弗洛伊德的信徒也大大扩展了他的理论,并最终将弗洛伊德的最初领悟转换到心理生活的本质中了。

 楼主| 发表于 2006-1-3 10:58 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 作者 于 2006-1-9 9:40:37 编辑

EGO PSYCHOLOGY

Ego psychology is the tradition of psychoanalytic thought which was, perhaps, the most faithful to Freud's original theory. Largely building on Freud's structural model of the psyche, involving the id, ego, and superego, ego psychology largely focused on the structures of the ego, particularly ego defenses, without modifying Freud's instinct theory. Anna Freud (1895-1982) was especially instrumental in carrying on her father's tradition, particularly in her pioneering work on defense mechanisms. The psychoanalytic clinician, Ernst Kris (1900-1957), was also instrumental for this endeavor through his brilliant clinical observations, which lead to his emphasis on the clinical analysis of ego defenses at work in his patients. Kris' clinical work increasingly lead to an increased focus on psychic structure. The controversial aspect of this approach involves a method which began to attend to ways to strengthen ego defenses, a deviation from Freud's approach, which predominately focused on a cathartic release of libidinal, unconscious energy.

It is Heinz Hartmann (1994-1970) who has come to be known as 'the father of ego psychology.' Similar to Harry Stack Sullivan, Hartmann increasingly focused on the interpersonal aspects of psychoanalytic work, the field in which ego defenses become evident. However, unlike Sullivan, Hartmann wished to retain the foundation of Freud's drive theory. Influenced by Charles Darwin, as Freud himself had been, Hartmann felt that ego defenses need not always be a source of conflict, but, with psychological maturity, can and do, in fact, develop into "conflict-free ego capacities" which are well-adapted to the environment.

Since ego defenses, as Hartmann asserted, could become adaptive through psychological maturation, this opened the way for a more fully elaborated developmental ego psychology. Rene Spitz (1887-1974) pioneered the use of empirical observation of children to further develop the insights of ego psychology. In particular, Spitz' observations found that the most severely disturbed children were those poor souls who had been deprived of a loving caregiver to provide the nurturance necessary for adaptation. Margaret Mahler (1997-1985) extended Spitz' research with her own brilliant insights based on empirical observation of children. She was especially innovative in her insights into the world of the psychotic child, as was Klein in Object Relations Theory, and she developed a fully elaborated model of developmental growth with her theory of "separation-individuation."


自我心理学

自我心理学或许是最忠实于弗洛伊德最初理论的精神分析思想传统。它主要建立于弗洛伊德的心理结构模型(本我、自我与超我)。在不修改弗洛伊德的本能理论情况下,自我心理学主要集中于自我的结构上,特别是自我防御。弗洛伊德的女儿安娜·弗洛伊德( Anna Freud ,1895-1982)在继续开展弗洛伊德精神分析传统上做出了巨大贡献,特别是她的防御机制的开创性工作。精神分析临床医师恩斯特·克里斯(Ernst Kris,1900-1957)通过他杰出的临床观察,也对这一事业做出了贡献,这些观察使他在对病人的工作中强调对自我防御进行临床分析。克里斯的临床工作逐渐使他越来越把重点放在心理结构上。这种方法引起争议的一个方面,是包括开始注意加强自我防御方面的技巧,而这是对弗洛伊德方法——大多集中于潜意识能量即力比多的情感释放上——的背离

海因茨·哈特曼(Heinz Hartmann)开始被认为是‘自我心理学之父’。与哈利·斯塔克·沙利文相似,哈特曼也渐渐集中于心理分析工作的人际关系方面,在这方面自我防御就会显现出来。然而,与沙利文不同的是,哈特曼希望保留弗洛伊德的驱力理论基础。受查尔斯.达尔文影响(就如弗洛伊德他自己也曾受其影响)的 哈特曼认为自我防御并非总是冲突的一个来源,而是随着心理的成熟,实际上自我防御可以而且确实能够发展出能够良好适应环境的“没有冲突的自我能力”

正如哈特曼所说,随着自我防御也许会通过心理上的成熟而变得具有适应性,接下来就要开始更充分地详细阐述发展自我心理学了。史比兹(Rene Spitz,1887-1974)最先利用对儿童的经验观察,进一步扩展了自我心理学的洞察。尤其是,史比兹通过观察发现,受到最严重扰乱的儿童是那些被剥夺了亲密养育者(他们为培养孩子的适应性提供必须的养育)的可怜的孩子。玛格丽·马勒(Margaret Mahler,1897-1985)在对儿童进行的经验观察基础上,得出了她自己杰出的洞察,并因此扩展了哈特曼的研究。正如克莱茵在《客体关系理论》的创新一样,马勒在精神病儿童的洞察方面特别有创新性,而且通过她的“分离-个体化”理论发展了一个非常详细的发展成长模式。



While the tradition of ego psychology remained faithful to Freud's original drive theory, this tradition also significantly contributed to a much more sophisticated conception of the drive model. This is particularly evident in the work of Edith Jacobson (1897-1978) who developed a revised theory of instinctual drives. Jacobson' theoretical integration of the insights of her contemporaries in ego psychology was especially productive in finding resolutions to the theoretical difficulties resulting from Freud's discovery that the drives involve both sexual or life-promoting (Eros) and aggressive and destructive (Thanatos) components.

The clinical implications of ego psychology were far-reaching. In particular, ego psychology emphasized an interpersonal approach which mapped out the ego defenses which provided the structure of the client's personality, and, further, this organization was traced to development processes which could be verbally articulated and thereby repaired in the therapeutic process. Ego psychology also involved an increased focus on pre-Oedipal experiences which contributed to the formation of the psychic structure of the patient. Not too far afield from Freud's original work, the ego psychologists developed more and more sophisticated ways of using the transference to assist the client in reworking early developmental disruptions and to provide the client with the opportunity to fulfill unmet development needs in the therapeutic relationship.


在自我心理学这一传统保持忠实于弗洛伊德最初的驱力理论的同时,也对许多更复杂的驱力模型概念做出了重要贡献。这在爱蒂·贾克生(Edith Jacobson1897-1978)的成果中尤其明显,他发展出了本能驱力的修订理论。贾克生对自我心理学中与她同时期人的洞察进行的理论整合,对找到解决由弗洛伊德的发现(驱力既包括性驱力、性爱驱力,也包括攻击与破坏驱力)所产生的理论难题的方法上特别有帮助。

自我心理学具有深远的临床意义。特别是,自我心理学强调人际关系方法,这种方法制订了一些自我防御,为顾客的人格提供了一个构架。此外,追塑自我心理学这一组织的发展过程的话,它也许是从口头说明开始的,并且在治疗过程中进行了修正。自我心理学也越来越强调前俄狄浦斯情结体验,这些体验有助于病人心理结构的形成。弗洛伊德发展了最初的成果以后不久,自我心理学家就发展出了越来越深奥的方法,即利用移情帮助顾客继续发展早期的中断,并在治疗关系中为顾客提供一个实现他们未被满足的发展需要的机会。

 楼主| 发表于 2006-1-4 13:01 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 作者 于 2006-1-4 13:05:04 编辑

INTERPERSONAL PSYCHOANALYSIS

Harry Stack Sullivan (1892-1949) developed his theory and practice of Interpersonal Psychoanalysis in the 1920's, his insights largely derived from his work with schizophrenics. An American psychiatrist, Sullivan, along with his contemporaries, had not yet felt the impact of Freud's psychoanalysis, and, thus, many of Sullivan's insights were derived from his own observations. His theory and practice, while having many similarities to psychoanalysis, is different than Freud's theory and practice. Sullivan's work with schizophrenics, in particular, lead him to reject the traditional psychiatric approach represented by Emil Kraepelin, who had asserted that the symptoms of schizophrenia are meaningless. Sullivan, on the contrary, felt that the symptoms of schizophrenia are meaningful, but only appear meaningless when taken out of the context of their development in the interpersonal field between self and other. For Sullivan, personality cannot be found to reside within the person, but rather is the continual unfolding product of an individual's interactions and relationships with others. Like Freud, Sullivan used the therapeutic relationship for the benefit of the client, but, while Freud did so in the service of liberating libidinal energy, Sullivan did so in the service of making the client aware of interpersonal processes which occur between him- or herself and others. From these basic premises, Sullivan developed sophisticated theories of anxiety, motivation and the self-system which were way ahead of their time. Sullivan's impact, though often unacknowledged, can be deeply felt in almost all branches of psychotherapeutic theory and practice today.

Contemporary interpersonal psychoanalysts, such as Clara Thompson (1893-1958) and Edgar Levenson (1972) have significantly contributed to advancing Sullivan's theory and to developing practical applications of Sullivan's theory in the therapeutic context. Sullivan's work also had a profound impact on contemporary psychologists such as R.D. Laing and Timothy Leary. Sullivan's theory, as evidenced in Laing's work, is particularly well-suited for integration with existential-phenomenological and humanistic orientations in the theory and practice of psychotherapy, and its impact can be felt in the self psychology movement within the last several decades.


人际关系心理分析

上世纪20年代,哈利·斯塔克·沙利文(Harry Stack Sullivan,1892-1949)发展了人际关系心理分析理论与实践,他的领悟主要来自他所从事的精神分裂症工作。作为一位美国精神病医生,沙利文及其同事过去一直没有受到弗洛伊德精神分析的影响,因而,他的许多领悟都来自他自己的观察。虽然沙利文的人际关系心理分析理论及实践与精神分析有许多相似之处,但与弗洛伊德的理论及实践不同。尤其是,沙利文从事精神分裂症的工作使他逐渐抛弃了由克雷培林(Emil Kraepelin)提出的传统精神病治疗方法——他宣称精神分裂症症状没有意义。相反,沙利文感到,当脱离了在自已与他人的人际领域中发展精神分裂症状的背景时,这些症状似乎没有意义,除此之外,这些症状都是有意义的。在他看来,人格并不是天生就存在于人的内部,而更确切地说是在个体与他人相互作用、联系的过程中持续发展的产物。同弗洛伊德一样,沙利文也利用以客户利益为中心的治疗关系,但是,弗洛伊德这样做是为了释放顾客的力比多能量,而沙利文则是为了使顾客意识到在他(她)与他人之间发生的人际进程。在这些基本前提下,沙利文发展出了既先进又深奥的焦虑、动机与自我系统理论。尽管他的理论经常不被承认,但几乎在当今心理治疗理论与实践的所有分支中都能深深感受到他的影响。

与沙利文同时期的一些人际关系心理分析学者,如克拉拉·汤普森(1893-1958)(Clara Thompson)与Edgar Levenson(1972),对推动沙利文的理论、发展其理论在治疗情景中的实践应用做出了巨大贡献。沙利文的理论也对同时期的一些心理学家,如兰恩(R.D. Laing)、提莫西·李瑞(Timothy Leary),产生了深远影响。正如兰恩的作品成果中显示的那样,沙利文的理论特别适合与心理治疗理论及实践中的存在主义现象学以及人文主义方向相结合,而在最近几十年发展起来的自体心理学运动中也能感受到其影响。

 楼主| 发表于 2006-1-4 16:31 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 作者 于 2006-1-6 12:02:54 编辑

OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY

Object Relations Theory emerges wholly from the profound impact of the work of Melanie Klein (1882-1960). Klein sought to elaborate on and extend Freud's original theory through her observations and clinical work with children. Indeed, Klein's work as a whole is an extension of Freud's work, but also a transformation of Freud's original insights through her unique interpretive perspectives. Klein was also profoundly influenced by Sandor Ferenczi her own psychoanalyst. Klein's insights were so transformative of Freud's work, in fact, that her theoretical work was rejected by many orthodox Freudians -- a clash best represented in the split between Klein's "London school" and the "Viennese school," most closely associated with the figure of Anna Freud. The initial class between Klein and Anna Freud, leading to this profound and lasting 'split,' involved differences in opinion regarding the treatment of children. Klein used play therapy and used interpretive techniques which were very similar to the techniques used with adults. Anna Freud, on the other hand, held that children's egos were not yet developed enough for classical analysis, and, instead, she advocated a more educative role for the analyst who works with children. The heated debates in WWII Britain -- within the British psychoanalytic society -- led to a profound schism in the psychoanalytic community which is still evident to this day. In fact, until recently, most American psychoanalysts, who were more closely aligned with Freudian ego psychology, held Klein and subsequent Object Relations Theory in contempt for this reason, and, vice versa, the Kleinian tradition generally demonized the ego psychology movement. Thankfully, today this schism is beginning to heal.

Working with children, Klein felt she had observed processes in pre-Oedipal children that were very similar to Oedipal conflicts in older children. Throughout her career, she attempted to theoretically justify these observations. In turn, Klein and her followers applied her practice and theory to work with psychotic adult patients. Klein generally saw similarities between young children's coping strategies in play and psychotic symptoms. In general, however, Klein imagined that all adults retain, at some level, such psychotic processes, involving a constant struggle to cope with paranoid anxiety and depressive anxiety. Klein was led, therefore, to apply her approach to adult neurotics, as well as psychotics and children. Klein's technique, in all cases, involved a method of using "deep" interpretations which she felt communicated directly to the unconscious of the client, thus by-passing ego defenses. In conclusion, Klein's theories, for example, of the paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions, her conception of sexuality and envy, and her discovery of projective identification as a defense have all been highly influential contributions to the field which, regardless of Klein's intentions, opened up new possibilities for psychoanalysis which were quite different than Freud's classical psychoanalytic practice and theory. The term "object relations" ultimately derived from Klein, since she felt that the infant introjects the 'whole' other with the onset of the depressive position during the ontogenesis of the self.

客体关系理论

客体关系理论全部来自梅兰妮·克莱茵(Melanie Klein,1882-1960)工作的深远影响。克莱茵试图通过她对儿童的观察及临床工作对弗洛伊德最初的理论进行了详细说明和拓展。事实上,克莱茵整体的工作就是对弗洛伊德工作的拓展,同时也是以她自己独特的阐述观点对弗洛伊德最初领悟的改革。克莱茵还受到她自己的心理分析师桑多尔·费伦齐(Sandor Ferenczi)的深远影响。事实上,克莱茵的领悟对弗洛伊德的理论改变的太多,以致许多正统的弗洛伊德信徒抛弃了它——在克莱茵的“伦敦学派”与“维也纳学派”(与安娜·弗洛伊德联系最密切)之间,出现了最大的冲突。克莱茵与安娜·弗洛伊德之间最初的分岐是对儿童治疗观点的不同,这一分岐对两派“分裂”造成了深远影响,并使分裂一直持续下去。克莱茵利用游戏对儿童进行治疗,并且利用与使用于成年人的技术相当类似的解释说明技巧。另一方面,安娜·弗洛伊德认为,儿童的自我还没有发展到足以能够给他们做经典分析的程度,相反,她提倡从事儿童工作的分析师更多地担当教育角色。世界第二次大战期间,在英国精神分析协会内部激烈的争论导致精神分析团体更进一步分裂,直到今天仍然如此。事实上,直到最近,大多数更接近弗洛伊德自我心理学的美国精神分析学者仍然因这一原因轻视克莱茵及她的《客体关系理论》。反之亦然,克莱茵的信徒通常也把自我心理学运动说成是魔鬼。令人欣慰的是,如今这一分歧开始趋向愈合了。

在从事儿童工作中,克莱茵认为,她在前俄狄浦斯情结的儿童当中观察到了与年龄更大的儿童当中俄狄浦斯情结冲突非常相似的阶段。在她一生的职业生涯中,她一直试图从理论上证明这些观察是合理的。克莱茵及其追随者依次将她的实践与理论应用于对成年精神病病人的治疗中,她经常能看到幼小的儿童在游戏中的应对策略与精神病症状之间的相似之处。然而,大体上,克莱茵设想:所有成年人在某种程度上仍然保留有精神病阶段,包括不断与燥狂焦虑、抑郁焦虑做斗争。因而,这样的设想引导克莱茵将她的方法除了应用于精神病患者与儿童中以外,也应用于成人的神经症患者中。在所有案例中,克莱茵的技巧都包括利用“深度”解析的方法,她觉得这样可以直接与病人的潜意识进行对话,从而修通自我防御。总之,克莱茵的偏执-分裂样状态与抑郁状态理论、性与嫉妒的概念、把投射性认同作为一种防御机制的发现都对这一领域做出了极具影响力的贡献。先不论克莱茵的目的是什么,仅这些发现就展开精神分析新的可能性,而这种精神分析完全不同于弗洛伊德的经典精神分析理论与实践。克莱茵认为,婴儿在自身发育期间,随着抑郁状态的爆发,会将“整个”他人内化为自己,因而“客体关系”这一术语基本上也是从她这里来的。

 楼主| 发表于 2006-1-4 16:37 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 作者 于 2006-1-6 12:02:00 编辑

Klein's student and analysand, Wilfred Bion (1897-1979), has been one of the most influential and gifted of Klein's followers. Bion's work is very complex and difficult to understand, even for one who is well-versed in Kleinian theory. Many of Bion's insights came from his work with schizophrenics, and these observations led him to significantly advance and re-conceptualize Klein's original thinking regarding envy and projective identification. As for envy, Bion felt it involved self-attacks which he called "attacks on linking" designed to sever problematic object relationships, but which, in the end, lead to a destruction of one's good objects. Most importantly, I would argue, Bion's contribution to Kleinian theory is an advancement which moves her theoretically conceived subject out of a solipsistic world of phantasy generated by instinctual drives. In the case of Bion, the mother has a significant impact on the child by the way she assists the child in coping with his or her anxiety. By 'containing' the anxiety of the child, Bion felt, the mother teaches the child to cope with the anxiety. Drawing on this fundamental insight, Bion felt that one of the central tasks of the psychoanalyst is to contain the anxiety of the client. And these process rely on the use of projective identification by which the child or patient projects intolerable anxiety onto the mother or analyst, who in turn 'contains' and gives back to the child the experience in a more manageable form.

British object relations theory, as already mentioned, is indebted to the work of Klein. Interestingly, however, the major figures of object relations theory, including Fairbairn, Winnicott, Balint, Bowlby and Guntrip, developed their positions without taking sides in the debates at the British Psychoanalytic Society. Although billing themselves as "independent" from the traditional Freudians of the "Viennese school" and the Kleinians of the "London school," they were deeply indebted to Klein's work, and, vice versa, Klein was often directly influenced by this "middle school," particularly by Fairbairn.

W. R. D. Fairbairn (1889-1964) dedicated himself to solving the theoretical problems inherent in Freud's hedonic drive theory, which he was never able to reconcile with his observations of the "repetition compulsion." In order to do this, Fairbairn had to reconceptualize Freud's theory of motivation -- thus, the libido. If the libido is primarily pleasure-seeking as Freud has argued, thought Fairbairn, why do people continually involve themselves in traumatic experiences? How can one explain, for example, nightmares, sexual masochism, and traumatic neurosis involving the repetition compulsion? Fairbairn's answer to this riddle is that the libido is not primarily pleasure-seeking, but object-seeking. In other words, intimacy and a connection to others is the primary motivation in human beings and pleasure is rather a secondary motivation derived from this more primary motivation. Also, unlike Klein,internal objects are not inevitable consequences of development, but rather the result of compensations for a real connection with others and stem from disruptions in early object relations with primary caregivers. These insights led Fairbairn to develop a new structure of the psyche which differed from Freud's original tripartite id, ego and superego structure. In particular, Fairbairn conceptualized a "splitting of the ego" into a libidinal and anti-libidinal ego to account for his observations

克莱茵的学生威尔弗雷德·比昂(Wilfred Bion,1897-1979)也是接受精神分析的人,他是克莱茵最具影响力,又最具有天赋的追随者之一。比昂的成果相当复杂,又难以理解,即使有人非常精通克莱茵的理论。他的很多领悟来自于他对所从事的精神分裂症工作的观察,而这些观察引导他大大推进了克莱茵关于嫉妒和投射性认同的最初思想,并对这些概念进行重新定义。就嫉妒来说,比昂认为它包括一些自我攻击(他称其为“对关系的攻击”, 旨在切断有问题的客体关系)。但最终,这种自我攻击会导致良好客体的破坏。最重要的是,我要说,比昂对克莱茵理论的贡献是将她的理论上设想的主体移到自我中心的空想(由本能驱力产生)世界之外。在他看来,在帮助孩子应对他(她)的焦虑方式上,母亲会对其产生重大影响。他认为,通过‘包容’孩子的焦虑,母亲就教会了孩子应对这种焦虑。利用这个基本领悟,比昂认为,精神分析师的中心任务之一就是包容顾客的焦虑,而这一过程依赖于利用投射性认同。通过投射性认同,孩子(或病人)把难以忍受的焦虑投射到母亲(或分析师)身上,母亲(或分析师)‘包容’它,并以一种更容易处理的方式将这种体验归还给孩子(或病人)。

正如前面已经提到的,英国客体关系理论得感谢克莱茵的工作。而有趣的是,客体关系理论的主要人物(包括费尔邦、 温尼科特、贝里恩、 鲍尔比,以及冈特瑞普)(Fairbairn, Winnicott, Balint, Bowlby and Guntrip)在英国精神分析协会中占有一席之地,没有偏向英国精神分析协会争论中的任何一方。尽管他们宣称,在传统的弗洛伊德的“维也纳学派”与克莱茵的“伦敦学派”中,他们自己是“独立学派”,但他们仍然深深感激克莱茵的工作。反之亦然,克莱茵也经常直接受到这个“中立学派”的影响,特别是费尔邦的影响。

威廉·费尔邦(W. R. D. Fairbairn,1889-1964)专心于解决弗洛伊德享乐驱力理论中固有的理论问题,他一直都不能使他对“重复强迫”的观察相一致。为了做到这一点,弗尔邦不得不对弗洛伊德的动机理论——即力比多——进行重新定义。他想,假如像弗洛伊德提出的那样,力比多主要就是寻找快乐的话,那么人们为何会不断使自己陷于创伤性经历中呢?例如,人们如何解释恶梦、性受虐狂以及包含重复强迫的创伤性神经症?他对这个谜的回答就是,力比多主要不是为了寻找快乐,而是为了寻找客体。换句话说,与他人的亲密与联系是人类的首要动机,而快乐是建立于首要动机之上的第二动机。这与克莱茵的观点也不同,费尔邦认为内在客体不是发展的必然结果,而是为了与他人建立真实联系进行补偿的结果,它是由早期与主要照料者的客体关系分裂而来。这些领悟使费尔邦发展出了新的心理结构,这种结构不同于弗洛伊德最初分为三部分(本我、自我、超我)的结构。特别是,为了对他的观察进行说明,除了力比多自我与反力比多自我之外,弗尔邦又定义了一个“自我的分裂”概念。

 楼主| 发表于 2006-1-4 16:42 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 作者 于 2006-1-8 16:31:27 编辑

D. W. Winnicott (1896-1971) began his career as a pediatrician and used his experience with children to develop his innovative ideas. Like Fairbairn, Winnicott conceptualized the psyche of the child as developing in relation to a real, influential parent. For a child to develop a healthy, genuine self, as opposed to a false self, Winnicott felt, the mother must be a "good-enough mother" who relates to the child with "primary maternal preoccupation." Anticipating the insights of Kohut and self psychology, Winnicott felt that a good-enough mother allows herself to be used by the infant so that he or she may develop a healthy sense of omnipotence that will naturally be frustrated as the child matures. Winnicott's theory is especially innovative regarding his conceptualization of the psychic space between the mother and infant, neither wholly psychological or physical, which he termed the "holding environment" and which allows for the child's transition to being more autonomous. This concept of the "holding environment" led Winnicott to develop his famous theory of the "transitional object." Winnicott felt that a failure of the mother -- the not-good-enough mother -- to provide a "holding environment" would result in a false self disorder, the kind of disorders which he saw in his practice. Winnicott's theory of "false self disorders" is uncannily similar to Laing's description of the schizoid personality in The Divided Self. Winnicott also felt that the therapist's task is to provide such a "holding environment" for the client so that the client might have the opportunity to meet neglected ego needs and allow the true self of the client to emerge.

Other important figures in the Object Relations tradition include Michael Balint, John Bowlby, and Harry Guntrip, as well as the following contributors: Susan Isaac, Hanna Segal, Herbert Rosenfeld, Paula Heimann, Heinrich Racker, Joseph Sandler, Betty Joseph, John Steiner, Elizabeth Bott Spillius, Esther Bick, Thomas Ogden, John D. Sutherland, James Grotstein, Jill Savage Scharff, Otto Kernberg, Nina Coltart, Patrick Casement, Neville Symington, Stephen Mitchell, Christopher Bollas, Henry Ezriel, Henry V. Dick, David E. Scharff, and Elliott Jaques.

For an in depth exploration of Object Relations Theory from an existential-phenomenological perspective, I highly recommend reading an article I've written:

the Paranoid-Schizoid and Depressive Positions in the Psychogenesis of the Self:A Phenomenological Investigation into the Ontological Foundations of Object Relations Theory

东纳·温尼科特(D. W. Winnicott,1896-1971)最初的职业是儿科医生,他利用治疗儿童的经验发展出了自己的创新思想。像费尔邦一样,温尼科特也把儿童的心灵定义为是在与真实的、具有影响力的父亲(母亲)的关系中发展起来的。温尼科特认为,为了使孩子发展成为一个健康的、真正的自我,而不是错误的自我,母亲必须是一个“足够好的母亲”,她要与孩子建立起“初级的与母亲的先入为主”(“primary maternal preoccupation.”)的关系。先于科胡特及其自体心理学的领悟,温尼科特认为,一个好母亲允许自己被婴儿利用,以便他(她)可以发展一个健康的万能感,这种万能感随着孩子逐渐成熟而自然失效。温尼克特的理论在关于母亲与婴儿之间的精神空间这一概念上尤其具有创新性,他认为这种精神空间既不是全心理的,也不是全身体的,他称其为“把握环境”,它允许孩子变得更独立自主。“把握环境”这一概念引导温尼科特发展出了著名的“过渡性客体”理论。他认为,不能提供“把握环境”的母亲(即不够好的母亲)会导致产生虚假自我障碍,他在实践中见到过这样一些障碍。温尼科特的“虚假自我障碍”理论与克莱茵在《分裂的自我》中对精神分裂症人格的描述惊人地相似。温尼科特还认为,治疗师的任务就是为顾客提供这样一个“把握环境”,以便顾客或许有机会满足被忽视的自我需要,允许顾客的真实自我出现。

客体关系传统中重要人物包括有:Michael Balint、 John Bowlby、 Harry Guntrip。下面还有一些对客体关系做出贡献者:Susan Isaac, Hanna Segal, Herbert Rosenfeld, Paula Heimann, Heinrich Racker, Joseph Sandler, Betty Joseph, John Steiner, Elizabeth Bott Spillius, Esther Bick, Thomas Ogden, John D. Sutherland, James Grotstein, Jill Savage Scharff, Otto Kernberg, Nina Coltart, Patrick Casement, Neville Symington, Stephen Mitchell, Christopher Bollas, Henry Ezriel, Henry V. Dick, David E. Scharff,及 Elliott Jaques.

为了从存在主义现象学角度深入探索《客体关系理论》,我强烈推荐阅读下面我写的这篇论文:

《自体心理过程中的偏执-分裂样状态与抑郁状态:对客体关系理论的存在论基础进行现象学研究》

发表于 2006-1-6 10:08 | 显示全部楼层

回复:(心伤可愈)As a final introductory note, ..

心伤可愈发表于2006-1-3 10:44:00A BRIEF HISTORY OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY FREUD AND CLASSICAL PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Psychoanalysis was given birth by Sigmund Freud at the turn of the century. Freud co

as well as his rarely acknowledged debt to 说的是布伦塔诺对弗洛伊德的影响(后面说了具体内容),不是他经济上负债了。

From his work with patients, Freud was eventually led to develop a more and more sophisticated theory of the human psyche which became increasingly understood according to a developmental model. 可以翻译成:在治疗病人的过程中,弗洛伊德最终发展了一套越来越复杂的人类心理理论,并且人们渐渐地把这一理论看作一种心理发展的模型。

 楼主| 发表于 2006-1-6 11:57 | 显示全部楼层
慧源人发表于2006-1-6 10:08:00as well as his rarely acknowledged debt to 说的是布伦塔诺对弗洛伊德的影响(后面说了具体内容),不是他经济上负债了。 From his work with patients, Freud was eventually led to devel

非常感谢慧源人朋友,谢谢你。

我是这方面的新手,还请你多多指教哦!

 楼主| 发表于 2006-1-6 12:05 | 显示全部楼层
我已经对你修改的地方进行了重新翻译和修改,谢谢。
发表于 2006-1-6 17:19 | 显示全部楼层

回复:(心伤可愈)以下是引用慧源人在2006-1-6 10:08

呵呵,我翻译这方面的文章也不多,觉得很费时间,需要查很多东西。大家一起切磋一下了。
发表于 2006-1-7 12:49 | 显示全部楼层
可愈你好

我还没有全部看你的翻译,不过,就翻好的看来,你的水平真是非常不错,完全可以去大学当个 vice professor 了

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I think, for example, of Harold's therapist in Harold and Maude, or, more recently, the aloof psychoanalyst in There's Something About Mary. More recently, films such as Good Will Hunting and Analyze This have portrayed psychotherapy as a powerful vehicle for radical psychological transformation and healing.

比如我想到的,《Harold and Maude》中 Harold 的 治疗师;或者,更近些,《There's Something About Mary》里的那个孤傲的精神分析师。近来,例如《Good Will Hunting》和《Analyze This》这样的电影已经把“心理疗法”描绘成了一个用于“根本性的心理改观和治愈”的强大工具。

Influenced by Charles Darwin, as Freud himself had been, Hartmann felt

受查尔斯.达尔文影响(就如弗洛伊德他自己也曾受其影响)的 Hartmann 觉得

loving caregiver

爱心照料者

-------------------------------------------------------

上面是我的理解,可能不对,仅供参考

[em04][em04]
 楼主| 发表于 2006-1-9 09:29 | 显示全部楼层
慧源人发表于2006-1-6 17:19:00呵呵,我翻译这方面的文章也不多,觉得很费时间,需要查很多东西。大家一起切磋一下了。

:)

 楼主| 发表于 2006-1-9 09:47 | 显示全部楼层
lotusbud发表于2006-1-7 12:49:00可愈你好我还没有全部看你的翻译,不过,就翻好的看来,你的水平真是非常不错,完全可以去大学当个 vice professor 了-------------------------------------------------I think, for example

谢谢lotusbud朋友,非常感谢。我们论坛的高手还真是不少呢,呵呵。

我已经按照你的修正修改了翻译。“loving caregiver”一词我还是用“亲密养育者”,我觉得这个更合适一些,这是我的看法。

请多多指教!

 楼主| 发表于 2006-2-24 16:36 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 作者 于 2006-2-24 16:40:40 编辑

HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY

Humanistic psychology emerged in the 1960's as the "third force" between psychoanalytic theory, on the one hand, and behaviorism, on the other. The humanistic psychologists of the day, including pioneers such as Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, drafted a manifesto which characterized the humanistic "third force" as having four essential principles:

1. The experiencing person is of primary interest.

This principle was largely established in relation to the behaviorist movement in psychology. Following Watson's "Behaviorist Manifesto," behaviorists argued that an empirical psychology must study behavior rather than consciousness. Radical behaviorists, such as B.F. Skinner, went so far as to argue that consciousness does not even exist. These kinds of absurdities in the name of logical positivist psychology led the "third force" humanists to develop this principle. The principle is particularly influenced by existential-phenomenological criticisms of logical positivist approaches to understanding the human being. In particular, they argued, human beings should be studied in real-life circumstances rather than in artificial laboratory settings; this was an acknowledgment that human behavior only makes sense in the context of everyday circumstances. Along with this sentiment goes the fundamental argument that human beings are subjects, rather than objects, of study. This is another argument borrowed from existential-phenomenology, which holds that human beings are not things and, thus, psychology, as a study of human beings, is a human science rather than a natural science; it cannot be modeled after physics or other natural sciences. Humanistic psychologists also argue that a holistic approach, as opposed to atomistic approaches, are necessary to understand the human being

This principle also includes the humanistic argument that a person must be examined and described in terms of personal consciousness, which includes subjective experience and how the individual perceives and values him or herself. From a post-modern perspective, this element of humanistic psychology is subject to criticism in that it posits a human subject which is too transparent to itself, unlike psychoanalytic theory which includes the fundamental principle that human beings are radically de-centered and unknown to themselves due to the unconscious.

2. Human choice, creativity, and self-actualization are the preferred topics of investigation.


人本主义心理学

作为“第三势力”(精神分析理论与行为主义之间)的人本主义心理学出现于20世纪60年代。当时的人本主义心理学家(包括一些创始人,如卡尔·罗杰斯与亚伯拉罕·马斯洛)起草了一份宣言,这份宣言认为人本主义“第三势力”以下面四项基本原则为特征:

1. 正在经历的人是其首要兴趣所在。

这一原则主要是在与心理学行为主义学派运动相比较时制定的。依据沃森(Watson)的“行为主义者宣言”,行为主义者主张,经验心理学必须研究行为,而不是意识。一些激进的行为主义者(如斯金纳)居然提出意识甚至不存在。逻辑实证主义心理学提出的这几种谬论使“第三势力”的人本主义者发展了这一原则。这一原则特别受到对理解人的逻辑实证主义方法进行的存在主义-现象学批判的影响。尤其是,他们提出,应该在真实生活条件下对人进行研究,而不是在人工实验室中;这就承认人的行为只有在日常条件下才有意义。伴随这种观点就产生了这样的基本论点,即人是研究的主体,而不是客体。这是从存在主义-现象学借过来的另一个论点,存在主义-现象学坚持人不是物,因而作为研究人的心理学是人文科学,而不是自然科学,它不能被物理学或其它自然科学模仿。人本主义心理学家还提出:在理解人的时候,必须使用综合法,而不是原子式的方法。

这一原则还包括人本主义的一个论点,即必须按照个人意识研究、描述一个人,这些个人意识包括主观体验及个体如何感知、如何评价他(她)自己。从后现代的观点来看,人本主义心理学的这一要素受到了批判,因为它假定人这一主体对自己是相当了解的,而和精神分析理论中提出的一个基本原则不同,即人类根本上是去中心的,而且由于潜意识的存在而对自己不了解。

2.人的选择、创造性与自我实现是研究的首选主题

This principle of humanistic psychology is directed at psychology at large, but it is pointed most directly at psychoanalytic theory. Psychoanalytic theory, historically, has based its findings on the clinical observations of persons who are suffering from some kind of psychological disorder. Thus, the humanistic psychologists argued that the study of crippled people has led to a crippled psychology, while the study of lower organisms (in behaviorism, in particular) has yielded an incomplete psychology, devoid of consciousness. Instead, they argued, psychology should study wholesome and healthy individuals, people who are creative and fully functioning. Fundamental to the humanistic psychologists is a belief that human beings have an innate drive to push forward and develop their potentials and capabilities; that is, a natural drive toward health or self-actualization. Thus, pathology results from a disruption of this natural process. In turn, humanistic psychologists argue that growth, rather than mere adjustment, is the criterion of health.

3. Meaningfulness must precede objectivity in the selection of research problems.

Psychological research, according to the humanists, has in the past centered on methods rather than on problems. Often, research problems have been selected chiefly because objective and convenient methods are available. Research projects, however, should be undertaken because they are significant and pertinent to human issues, even if the methods available are weak. More fundamentally, the humanistic psychologists argue that research cannot be value-free. This very important point is a central debate in the philosophy of science, and it is a decided break with a naive realist approach to science, which is philosophically untenable, though still often put into practice. (See my paper on Heidegger and Kuhn).

4. Ultimate value is placed on the dignity of the person.

Above all, say the humanists, humans are accepted as unique and as having the potential to be noble. Psychologists must understand people, rather than predict and control their behavior. Individuals have a higher nature with a need for meaningful work, responsibility, and the opportunity for creative expression. While most empirical psychology pretends to omit biases based on values, which is an impossibility, the humanistic psychologists at least were very honest about their philosophical assumptions. Too often, however, the humanists were very biased toward a Western conception of the human being as an "individual" that exists prior to cultural and historical influences. On the other hand, the humanists were ahead of their time in demanding that psychology be a human science based on understanding rather than explanation -- a debate going back to Dilthey and a problem which arises as a response to Cartesian metaphysics. (Vico's philosophy can be seen as a very early and direct criticism of Descartes and his followers, which I think is very pertinent today if we are to understand the historical antecedents to human science psychology).


人本主义心理学的这一原则主要是针对心理学的,而最直接地是针对精神分析理论的。从历史观点上说,精神分析理论的成果是基于对那些遭受某种心理障碍的人的临床观察。因而,人本主义心理学家提出,对不健全的人进行的研究就导致了不健全的心理学,而对较低级生物机体的研究(特别是行为主义)就产生了缺乏意识、不完善的心理学。相反,他们提出,心理学应该研究身心健康的个体,研究那些有创造性、功能完善的人。人本主义心理学家的基本原则是:相信人具有向前发展并且开发其潜能的先天驱力;也就是说,一种朝向健康或自我实现的自然驱力。因而,病理是由这种自然过程的中断所产生的。所以,人本主义心理学家提出,成长(而不仅仅是调整)是健康的标准。

3. 在选择研究问题时,意义必须高于客观现实。

根据人本主义者的观点,心理研究过去是集中于方法上,而不是问题上。通常,一些研究问题主要是根据是否可以使用客观、方便的方法来选择的。然而,我们应该根据是否有意义、是否与人类问题有关来选择研究项目,即使可以使用的一些方法比较缺乏说服力。人本主义心理学家提出,更根本地说,研究不能是没有任何价值的研究。这一点相当重要,而且是科学哲学中的核心争论,它坚决破灭了天真的现实主义者对待科学的方法,现实主义者认为哲学是站不住脚的,尽管哲学仍然在实践。(见我的关于Heidegger and Kuhn的论文)

4. 最根本的价值应该是置于人的高贵性上。

人本主义者说,首先,人是独特的,而且拥有成为高尚的人的潜能。心理学家必须理解人,而不是预测并且控制他们的行为。个体具有更高的特性,他们需要有意义的工作、责任与进行创造性表达的机会。而大多数经验主义心理学自称忽略了基于价值的一些偏见,这是不可能的事情,人本主义心理学家对其哲学假设至少是相当诚实的。然而,人本主义者相当偏向于西方的关于人的概念,认为“个体”是先于文化与历史影响而存在的,这太常见了。另一方面,人本主义者提出了一种领先于当时的时代的一种主张,认为心理学是一种基于理解而不是基于解释的人文科学——狄尔泰时期的一个争论,在回答笛卡尔时提出的一个问题(魏柯的哲学可以被看做是对笛卡尔及其信徒的一个相当早的直接批判,我认为,如果我们要理解人文科学心理学的历史人物的话,这在今天仍然是比较有关)。


Carl Rogers (1902-1987) is truly the central figure in the humanistic orientation. Rogers' Person-Centered Theory emphasized the concept of "self-actualization." This concept implies that there is an internal, biological force to develop one's capacities and talents to the fullest. The individual's central motivation is to learn and to grow. Growth occurs when individuals confront problems, struggle to master them, and through that struggle develop new aspects of their skills, capacities, views about life. Life, therefore, is an endless process of creatively moving forward, even if only in small ways. Regarding "self-actualization," Rogers wrote:

"During a vacation weekend some months ago I was standing on a headland overlooking one of the rugged coves which dot the coastline of northern California. Several large rock outcroppings were at the mouth of the cove, and those received the full force of the great Pacific combers which, beating upon them, broke into mountains of spray before surging into the cliff-lined shore. As I watched the waves breaking over these large rocks in the distance, I noticed with surprise what appeared to be tiny palm trees on the rocks, no more than two or three feet high, taking the pounding of the breakers. Through my binoculars I saw that these were some type of seaweed, with a slender "trunk" topped off with a head of leaves. As one examined a specimen in the interval between the waves it seemed clear that this fragile, erect, top-heavy plant would be utterly crushed and broken by the next breaker. When the wave crunched upon it, the trunk bent almost flat, the leaves were whipped into a single line by the torrent of water, yet the moment the wave had passed, here was the pant again erect, tough, resilient. It seemed incredible that it was able to take this incessant pounding hour after hour, day after night, week after week, perhaps, for all I know, year and year, and all the time nourishing itself, extending its domain, reproducing itself; in short, maintaining and enhancing itself in this position which, in our shorthand, we call growth. Here in this palmlike seaweed was the tenacity of life, the forward thrust of life, the ability to push into an incredibly hostile environment and not only hold its own, but to adapt, develop, and become itself."

Rogers' quote speaks to his fundamental assumption that human beings, as well as all living beings, are driven to grow and to strive for optimal health, and this requires a resiliency in the face of adversity. There is a decided 'John Wayne' radical individualism inherent in Rogers' thought -- very American, very rugged, very tough, and, certainly, very culturally biased in this respect, not to mention gender-biased in that it tends to downplay interpersonal interdependence. On the other hand, Rogers admits that such a resiliency necessarily develops from the nurturance of others.


卡尔·罗杰斯(Carl Rogers,1902-1987)真正是人本主义心理学的核心人物。他的《以人为核心理论》强调的是“自我实现”这一概念。这个概念指的是存在一种充分发展一个人的能力与才干的先天的生物力量。个体的主要动机是学习与成长。当个体面临一些问题时,努力解决它们,并且通过努力发展了新的技能、能力与对生活的态度,这时候就成长了。因而,生活是一个创造性地往前发展的无止境的过程,即使仅仅是在小的方面。关于“自我实现”,罗杰斯写道:

“在几个月前的一次周末度假期间,我站在一座海岬上眺望一些崎岖的峡谷,这些峡谷标志着加州北端的海岸线。峡谷口上有几块巨大的岩石突出来,它们经受着来自大太平洋海浪强大的力量。海浪拍打着它们,在冲击这个直线型的悬崖式海岸之前就被打成了海浪山。当我看着远处海浪击打这些巨石的时候,我惊讶地注意到,在岩石上好像有一些细小的棕榈树,只有两三米高,承受着海浪重重的击打。通过望远镜,我看到这是某种海草,微弱的‘身躯’填满了浪头。如果一个人在两次海浪间隔内做一个抽样调查,好像很明显这种柔弱的、直立的、头重脚轻的植物会被下一波海浪给摧毁、折断。当海浪压过海草时,海草的树干几乎完全倒下了,树叶也被急流的水打成了一条直线,然而在浪退去的那一刻,海草就又直立、坚持、回弹回来。”好像难以相信海草能够不停地对抗这种重击,一小时接一小时,日以继夜地、一星期接一星期,或许就我所知道的一年接一年地对抗,而自始至终它都在使自己更强壮、扩展它的领域、再造自己;简而言之,在这一过程中它们都在保养、提高自己,我们用简单的语言来讲,就称其为成长。在这种类似棕榈的海草中显示的是生命的坚韧、向前延续生命、在极端恶劣的环境中向前发展,它们不仅仅是保持自身,还要去适应、发展、成为自己。”

罗杰斯的引用说到了他的基本假设,即人,也包括所有有生命的生物,都被驱使着成长、努力达到最佳健康状态,而这就需要在面对不幸时要有韧性。在罗杰斯的思想中本来就存在一种明确的‘约翰·韦恩(John Wayne)’式的激进个人主义——相当美国化、相当粗糙、相当坚决,而且在这方面确实具有严重的文化偏见,更不要提倾向于贬低人际互动中的相互依赖的性别偏见了。另一方面,罗杰斯承认,这种必须的韧性是通过别人的养育发展而来的。


 楼主| 发表于 2006-2-24 16:37 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 作者 于 2006-2-24 16:41:59 编辑

For Rogers, "self-actualization" is a natural process, yet it requires the nurturance of a caregiver. This is a contradiction in Rogers' theory, which may or may not be obvious. If "self-actualization" is merely a natural process, then why must it depend on a caregiver for it to occur? In defense of Rogers, this paradox at least shows that, despite his individualistic bias, he understood deep down that people need people, that we are radically dependent on others for our existence, and that so-called "individuation-separation" involves a more differentiated and mature relationship with others rather than a lack of interdepedence with others. In any case, Rogers felt that "unconditional positive regard" is necessary for "self-actualization." That is, human growth requires the experience of being valued for oneself regardless of the degree to which specific behaviors are approved or disapproved. On the other hand, self-actualization is thwarted by "conditional positive regard" -- when acceptance is dependent on the positive or negative evaluation of a person's actions. "Conditional positive regard," Rogers felt, leads to "conditions of worth," which, in turn, can lead to alienation from true feelings and, thus, to anxiety and threat, which blocks self-actualization.

Roger's theory led him to practice a non-directive psychotherapy in which the client sat face-to-face with him rather than lying on the couch. In the larger scheme of things, I feel this was a radical move by Rogers. Most importantly, it sends a message to the client that they are collaborators and that the therapist is not the one who 'knows,' but is there to facilitate the client's growth (which can only come from 'within,' so to speak). Finally, Rogers held to the strict criteria that genuineness, empathy and unconditional positive regard are essential on the part of the therapist if the client is to be healed and "self-actualize."

Abraham Maslow's (1908-1970) Organismic Humanism is, frankly, much more sophisticated and coherent than Rogers' theory. Further, while Rogers' theory grew as a justification for his practice of psychotherapy, Maslow never formed a specific therapeutic practice. Maslow's theory has its strength in its central focus on criticizing Freud's theory of motivation. For Maslow, the human being is not driven by one central motivation, such as sexual gratification, but rather he or she is driven by a multiplicity of need systems, which Maslow conceived as existing in a hierarchy. Maslow also spent many years developing his theory of self-actualization through empirical, phenomenological interviews with people who were "self-actualized." There is a circular reasoning at work here in that Maslow already had a conceptualization of "self-actualization" in order to select his subjects for research, but, to his credit, he studied a wide range of individuals. He felt that "self-actualization" is, in part, characterized by frequent "peak experiences." Maslow was very influenced by existential philosophy, and he was also drawn to the study of mystical experiences, both from Western and Eastern religious traditions. In this sense, Maslow was a pioneer, along with Carl Jung, in developing a "transpersonal" perspective in psychology.


对罗杰斯来说,“自我实现”是一个自然的过程,然而它需要养育者的养育。这是罗杰斯理论中的一个矛盾,或许明显或许不明显。如果“自我实现”仅仅是一个自然的过程,那么为什么还必须依赖于养育人来实现呢?在罗杰斯的防御中,先不论他的个人主义偏见,这种自相矛盾的话至少表明,他远不能理解人需要人、我们的存在根本上要依赖他人,以及所谓的“个体化-分离”包含一种与他人的更不同、更成熟的关系,而远胜于与他人相互依赖的缺乏。无论如何,罗杰斯感到“无条件积极关注”对“自我实现”来说是必须的。即,人的成长需要有自我被尊重的体验,而不管特定行为被认可或不认可的程度如何。另一方面,自我实现是受到“有条件积极关注”阻碍的——这时接受就依赖于对人的行为的积极或消极评价。罗杰斯感觉,“有条件积极关注”导致“价值的有条件”,这样的话,这种“价值的有条件”就会导致与自己的真实感受相隔离,导致焦虑、威胁,阻碍了自我实现。

罗杰斯的理论使他实行了一种非指导性心理疗法,使用这种疗法时,顾客与他面对面坐着,而不是躺在沙发上。在事物发展计划中,我感觉这是罗杰斯所做的一项根本上的促动。最重要的是,它为顾客传递了一个信息,即顾客是合作者,而治疗师不是一个‘什么都知道’的人,而是通过咨询促进顾客的成长(可以说,这种成长只能是‘内心’的成长)。罗杰斯坚定地坚持:如果要治愈顾客并使他们“自我实现”的话,真诚、共情与无条件积极关注这一标准是治疗师必不可少的一部分。

坦白说,亚伯拉罕·马斯洛(Abraham Maslow,1906-1970)的《机体人本主义》比罗杰斯的理论意义更深远、更连贯。此外,当罗杰斯的理论作为他进行心理疗法实践的正当理由成长时,马斯洛还从未形成一种特定的治疗实践。马斯洛的理论在集中于批判弗洛伊德的动机理论上有其优势。对马斯洛来说,人类不是受一个核心动机(如性满意度)驱动的,而是受一个多种需要体系驱动的,马斯洛认为这种需要体系是分层次的。他还花许多年时间通过与那些已经“自我实现”了的人进行经验主义、现象学的会谈,发展出了自己的自我实现理论。在实行中存在一个循环推理的过程,即为了选择他的研究主体,他已经设定了一个“自我实现”的概念,但为了他的信誉,他对广泛的个体进行了研究。他感到,自我实现部分地是以频繁出现“高峰体验”为特征的。马斯洛受到存在主义哲学很大影响,还受到吸引去研究神秘体验,这两个分别来自于西方与东方宗教传统。在这个意义上,在发展出心理学中“超个人”观点方面,马斯洛与卡尔·荣格一样,都是创始人。


In truth, the heading of "humanistic psychology," as is the title of "psychoanalytic theory," subsumes many different perspectives under one umbrella term. Often, it seems, schools of therapy which are less mainstream are most often categorized as "humanistic," so, in this sense, "humanistic psychology" can sometimes be a 'catch-all' label for any marginalized theory or practice. Gestalt-oriented therapy is often associated with the humanistic orientation. Also associated with the "third force" are transpersonal approaches and existential/ phenomenological approaches to psychology. Each of these approaches share similarities with Rogers and Maslow, but they are all decidedly different, as well, and draw as much from classical Freudian theory and others as they do from the pioneers of humanistic psychology. However, the influence of humanistic psychology can be felt today in all orientations of psychology, especially contemporary psychoanalytic practice and theory. The influence of humanistic theory is particularly evident in Kohut's Self Psychology, which melds together psychoanalytic and humanistic approaches of theory and practice. And, although some may disagree, much of contemporary object relations theory, particularly those influenced by Winnicott, understand the human being and psychoanalytic practice in ways that are very similar to humanists such as Rogers and Maslow. To their benefit, however, object relations theorists tend to have a more sophisticated understanding of the radically intersubjective nature of being human.


事实上,“人本主义心理学”这一标题,正如“心理分析理论”这一题目一样,在这一涵盖性术语下面包含了许多不同的观点。通常来说,好像不属于主流的治疗学派最常被归类为“人本主义”。因此,在这个意义上,“人本主义心理学”有时候就成为任何一种边缘理论或实践的“全获”标签。格式塔疗法通常与人本主义有关,与这“第三势力”有关的还有心理学超个人主义方法与存在主义/现象学方法。这些方法中每一种方法都与罗杰斯及马斯洛的方法有相似之处,但又截然不同。除此之外,这些方法还从经典弗洛伊德理论中吸取了与从人本主义心理学创始人那里吸取的同样多的营养。然而,在当今所有心理学方向中都能感受到人本主义心理学的影响,尤其是当代的心理分析实践与理论。人本主义理论的影响在科胡特的《自体心理学》中特别明显,自体心理学把精神分析与人本主义方法的理论与实践相合并。而且,尽管有些人可能不同意,许多当代的客体关系理论,尤其是那些受到温尼可(Winnicott)影响的理论,在理解人与心理分析实践的方式上都与人本主义者(如罗杰斯与马斯洛)非常相似。然而,就它们的益处来说,客体关系理论家倾向于对人的根本主体间的本质有更深奥的理解。

发表于 2006-2-24 23:45 | 显示全部楼层

 我想楼主已经翻译的很好了,而且我也在读中,希望能帮到点忙,真的是做的非常好

[em17][em17]感觉你很胜任这份工作
 楼主| 发表于 2006-2-25 08:58 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 作者 于 2006-2-25 9:07:43 编辑

爱相随eva发表于2006-2-24 23:45:00 我想楼主已经翻译的很好了,而且我也在读中,希望能帮到点忙,真的是做的非常好感觉你很胜任这份工作

谢谢你的夸奖和鼓励,还请多多指教哦。。。

我翻译了存在主义-现象学部分,但感觉这部分太难了,我校对了好几遍,还是感觉自己有很多地方不懂,翻译不好。今天我会把这部分发上来,还要请你一定要多多提些意见啊。。。

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